How the Purity of Injected Carbon Dioxide Affects the Oxygen Concentration of Beer

When an industrial supplier sets a minimum purity for the CO2 they supply to your brewery, you need to be aware of the ramifications of that purity and whether there is any chance it will increase the dissolved oxygen concentration of your beer. CO2 specified at 99.5% or better may sound very pure, but when we do the math we find this is actually a problem. This post is specifically about carbon dioxide that is “injected” into beer. Another post will address CO2 that is “sparged” into beer.

If your CO2 has a 99.5% purity, then the impurity is 0.5%. For purchased CO2, the assumption is that the impurity is always air, so only 1/5 of the impurity – 0.1% — should be oxygen. If you were to add to your beer one Volume of CO2 with an impurity of 0.1% O2, it would increase your oxygen concentration by a whopping 1,420 ppb.

In 1985, Nick Huige and his Miller Brewing Company co-workers published a paper on this subject in the MBAA Tech Quarterly. Their findings on the affect of injecting impure CO2 are astounding and can been seen in the table below.


Amount of added CO2

Concentration of O2 impurity in CO2




0.5 V/V

7 ppb

35 ppb

142 ppb

1.0 V/V

14 ppb

71 ppb

284 ppb

2.0 V/V

28 ppb

142 ppb

567 ppb

Dissolved oxygen added to the beer


So if you want to inject CO2 into your beer, you need to be mindful of the actual purity. I know a brewer whose CO2 specification from his supplier was 99.5%. Most of the time the supply was much purer >99.998%, which is excellent. But when they had an unexpected increase in their dO2 levels, the cause was eventually traced back to the CO2. What was the purity of the “problem” C02? A number that still sounds good on a cursory level – 99.97%! – but was not acceptable in the context of dissolved oxygen in the product.

Most brewers specify a minimum CO2 purity of 99.990%. This equates to an oxygen impurity of about 0.002%. If one V/V of CO2 with this oxygen content were injected into beer, the resulting increase to the beer dO2 would be about 28 ppb.

My final thought is that if you are injecting CO2 into your beer, be sure your purity specification is not too low. You don’t ever want to be in a position where you’ve been getting great CO2 but then have one “bad” batch – still within the manufacturer’s specification – adding too much oxygen to your product.


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